Social Enterprise No One Left Behind: Leveraging Rural Entrepreneurship to Drive Financial Inclusion in India
The case covers a specific instance of state-led innovation in the provision of financial services to Indian citizens: through the the "Common Services Centres" (CSC) scheme. The CSC scheme engages a vast network of rural entrepreneurs to drive the delivery of a variety of services, including - in collaboration with banking organisations and bodies in the country - financial services (banking and insurance). This is particularly relevant since India has long suffered from extremely limited financial inclusion of its citizens, especially in rural areas and among marginalised groups and communities. Banking penetration as well as financial awareness too have historically been low. The present scheme has been an effort to combat these (and other related) challenges to bring hitherto underserved regions into the ambit of the formal banking system in India using a combination of locl social networks, innovative use of digital technologies, and iterative policy design.
To help graduate students of public policy, public administration, and business administration learn about the design and implementation of innovative governance solutions to intractible social problems such as expanding financial inclusion to hitherto underserved communities through the use of digital technologies. The case may also be used to explore challenges and bottlenecks to such processes, as well as trade-offs faced while ensuring service delivery.
Strategy Boosting Rural Entrepreneurship Through India's Common Services Centres: An Agile Grassroots-based Approach
The case discusses the development and implementation of a unique - and indeed, one of the world's largest - telecenter scheme, the "Common Services Centres" (CSC). The CSC scheme engaged rural entrepreneurs to meet the twin goals of ensuring last-mile delivery of e-governance services as well as supporting the development of indigenous entrepreneurship. The former has been a long-standing element of the government's plans to create a "Digital India", while the latter is geared towards serving as a source of employment generation and income growth to drive nation development. While highlighting contrasts between the different kinds of entrepeneurship that exist (specifically necessity/subsistence vs innovative entrepeneurship), the case also discusses in detail the unique challenges faced by subsistence entrepreneurs, which are likely to be common to all emerging economies, and how this scheme sought to address them through the deployment of innovative technologies. The case offers a high-level view into the creation and implementation of the CSC scheme, the processes of iteration and improvement it underwent, and the broad challenges it continues to face.
To help graduate students of public policy, public administration, and business administration understand the nature, drivers, and impacts of necessity entrepreneurship and large social enterprises in emerging economies, the players involved in driving such processes, and trade-offs for each.Learn More
IT Management IT-Led Business Transformation at Reliance Energy
The takeover of Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd (BSES) in 2003 (eventually renamed Reliance Energy) marked the foray of Reliance Industries Ltd into the power transmission and distribution business. The power sector, plagued by bureaucratic controls and constraints on supply and demand, offered little managerial discretion to alter the traditional drivers of growth and profitability. The case illustrates how Reliance Energy leveraged technology to transform its strategy and operations in order to establish international standards of operational excellence and customer service in the Indian power sector. Students learn about the significant risks in technology-driven transformations and their critical success factors, such as complementary changes in firm structures and business processes. The case is set in 2008, when the Chief Information Officer (CIO) of Reliance Energy is found dwelling over the digital transformation of the company that has led to the decision to spin off the information technology (IT) department into a third-party technology solutions provider for the infrastructure sector. Was the digital transformation of the company a success? What were the lessons learnt from this transformation?
This case is designed for course sessions that demonstrate how companies use technology strategically to improve their competitiveness. It requires students
- Understand the business challenges that characterize old world industries in India, and
- Assess the business equation that complements technological change in organizations to drive value. Students gain insights into complementary changes required in structure, policies, and culture to enable the successful adoption of new technologies.
IT Management Sony Music (India)
"This case study illustrates the principles of disruptive innovation in the context of the music industry in India. Widespread technological changes, including the spread of the Internet and mobile penetration, began to redefine the industry in terms of the way music was created, accessed and consumed. With these technological changes sweeping the industry in a relatively short time frame, the cost of music creation and consumption declined rapidly and incumbents began to find it difficult to sustain operations at current profit margins. The Indian music industry was the archetype of an industry disrupted by technological forces. In such a scenario, the case highlights the dilemma of Sony Music India, a large music recording company, which had been operating in the Indian music industry since 1998 and was now exploring the potential options available for growth and profitability in the evolving digital music space. The Indian subsidiary benefits from learning from its parent but operates under a different business model. The case is set in 2012, and places the student in the shoes of Vivek Paul, Head of Digital Media, who is pondering over what form Sony's digital platform offering should take. How different was the Indian music landscape from the West? What were the disruptive impacts? Should the response of the company mirror its parent corporation? What was the economic upside? Should the company sell exclusively through its own site? Should the company launch a separate organization to manage its digital business? "
This case is designed for course sessions that focus on disruptive innovations in general, and on how information technologies disrupt industries, including business models, products, services and competitive strategies, in particular. It views the challenge of industry disruption from an incumbent's perspective, and requires the student to examine some of the key technological invariants that trigger disruptions and understand how these disrupted the music industry.